Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (Arabic: المسجد النبوي ‘Mosque of the Prophet’), often called the Prophet's Mosque, is a mosque situated in the city of Medina. As the final resting place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), it is considered the second holiest site in Islam by both Shia and Sunni Muslims (the first being the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca) and is the second largest mosque in the world.
One of the most notable features of the site is the Green Dome over the center of the mosque, where the tomb of Muhammad (pbuh) is located. It is not exactly known when the green dome was constructed but manuscripts dating to the early 12th century describe the dome. It is known as the Dome of the Prophet or the Green Dome.
Subsequent Islamic rulers greatly expanded and decorated it. Early Muslim leaders Abu Bakr and Umar are buried in an adjacent area in the mosque.
The site was originally Muhammad's (pbuh), house; he (pbuh), settled there after his Hijra (emigration) to Medina, later building a mosque on the grounds. He (pbuh), himself shared in the heavy work of construction. The original mosque was an open-air building. The basic plan of the building has been adopted in the building of other mosques throughout the world.
The original mosque was built by Muhammad (pbuh), next to the house where he settled after his journey to Medina in 622 AD. The original mosque was an open-air building with a raised platform for the reading of the Qur'an. It was a rectangular enclosure of 30 m × 35 m (98 ft × 110 ft), built with palm trunks and mud walls, and accessed through three doors: Bab Rahmah to the south, Bab Jibril to the west and Bab al-Nisa' to the east. The basic plan of the building has since been adopted in the building of other mosques throughout the world.
Inside, Muhammad (pbuh) created a shaded area to the south called the suffrah and aligned the prayer space facing north towards Jerusalem. When the qibla (prayer direction) was changed to face the Kaaba in Mecca, the mosque was re-oriented to the south. The mosque also served as a community center, a court, and a religious school. Seven years later (629 AD/7 AH), the mosque was doubled in size to accommodate the increasing number of Muslims.